ASTM D7415-21 用傅里叶变换红外光谱法(FT-IR)趋势分析法对在用石油和碳氢化合物基润滑剂中硫酸盐副产品进行状态监测的标准试验方法

ASTM D7415-21 用傅里叶变换红外光谱法(FT-IR)趋势分析法对在用石油碳氢化合物润滑剂硫酸盐副产品进行状态监测的标准试验方法

基本信息

标准号:ASTM D7415-22
发布单位或类别:美国-美国材料与试验协会(US-ASTM)
发布日期:2022-10-01
实施日期
废止日期
CCS分类
ICS分类

75.100   石油及相关技术 – 润滑剂、工业油及相关产品

适用范围/摘要

1.1 本试验方法包括监测硫含量大于500 ppm的在用石油和碳氢化合物柴油曲轴箱发动机和发动机机油中的硫酸盐副产物。当使用低硫燃料燃烧时,不应使用此试验方法。 1.2 本试验方法使用傅里叶变换红外(FT-IR)光谱法监测正常机械操作导致的在用石油和碳氢化合物润滑剂中硫酸盐副产物的积累。硫酸盐副产物可能是由燃烧或硫氧化引入的硫引起的- 含有基础油添加剂。本试验方法设计为一种快速、简单的光谱检查,用于监测在用石油和碳氢化合物润滑剂中的硫酸盐副产物,目的是通过测量油中硫酸盐副产物的含量来帮助诊断机器的操作条件。 1.3 实践中描述了用于测量在用油和润滑剂样品中硫酸盐副产物的FT-IR光谱数据的采集 D7418号 在本试验方法中,硫酸盐的测量和数据解释参数- 给出了使用直接趋势分析和差分(谱减法)趋势分析的产品。 1.4 本试验方法基于与在用石油和碳氢化合物润滑剂的硫酸盐副产品相关的光谱变化趋势。警告或警报限值可以根据单个测量的固定最小值设置,或者也可以根据测量的响应变化率设置,参见参考 ( 1. ) . 2. 1.4.1 对于直接趋势分析,直接从吸收光谱记录数值,并以每0吸光度单位报告。 1 mm路径长度。 1.4.2 对于差异趋势分析,从差异光谱中记录数值(从在用机油的吸收光谱中减去参考机油的吸收谱得到的光谱),并以每0.1倍100*吸光度为单位进行报告 mm路径长度(或每厘米等效吸光度单位)。 1.4.3 无论哪种情况,都应通过统计分析、相同或类似设备的历史记录、循环试验或其他方法,结合硫酸盐的相关性,通过- 产品性能的变化。 注1: 本试验方法的目的不是为任何机械确定或建议正常、警告、警告或警戒限值。应结合机械制造商和维护小组的建议和指导,确定此类限制。 1.5 本试验方法适用于石油和碳氢化合物润滑油,不适用于酯基润滑油,包括多元醇酯或磷酸酯。 1.6 以国际单位表示的数值视为标准值。本标准不包括其他计量单位。 1.6.1 例外情况- 波数单位为厘米 -1 . 1.7 本标准并不旨在解决与其使用相关的所有安全问题(如有)。本标准的使用者有责任在使用前制定适当的安全、健康和环境实践,并确定监管限制的适用性。 1.8 本国际标准是根据世界贸易组织技术性贸易壁垒(TBT)委员会发布的《关于制定国际标准、指南和建议的原则的决定》中确立的国际公认标准化原则制定的。 =====意义和用途====== 5.1 硫酸盐物质的增加可能是油中硫和燃油中硫氧化引起的油降解的一个指标。它还可以指示油中一些关键添加剂的分解或氧化,例如抗磨剂和极压添加剂以及漏气问题。由于窜气产生的氧化硫进入润滑剂,它将消耗过碱添加剂,生成硫酸盐副产物。因此,硫酸盐副产品的监测是确定整体机械健康和确定添加剂消耗的重要参数,应结合其他测试数据,如用于磨损金属分析的原子发射(AE)和原子吸收(AA)光谱(测试方法 D5185型 )物理性能试验(试验方法 D445号 和 D2896型 ),基数试验(试验方法 D974号 和 D4739号 )和其他硝化用FT-IR油分析方法(试验方法 D7624号 ),氧化(试验方法 D7414号 )和添加剂消耗(试验方法 D7412号 ),它还评估了石油状况的要素,参见参考文献 ( 1- 6. ) .

1.1 This test method covers monitoring sulfate by-products in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based diesel crankcase engine and motor oils that have a sulfur content of greater than 500 ppm. This test method should not be employed when low-sulfur fuels are used for combustion. 1.2 This test method uses Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry for monitoring build-up of sulfate by-products in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants as a result of normal machinery operation. Sulfate by-products can result from the introduction of sulfur from combustion or from the oxidation of sulfur-containing base oil additives. This test method is designed as a fast, simple spectroscopic check for monitoring of sulfate by-products in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants with the objective of helping diagnose the operational condition of the machine based on measuring the level of sulfate by-products in the oil. 1.3 Acquisition of FT-IR spectral data for measuring sulfate by-products in in-service oil and lubricant samples is described in Practice D7418 . In this test method, measurement and data interpretation parameters for sulfate by-products using both direct trend analysis and differential (spectral subtraction) trend analysis are presented. 1.4 This test method is based on trending of spectral changes associated with sulfate by-products of in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants. Warnings or alarm limits can be set on the basis of a fixed minimum value for a single measurement or, alternatively, can be based on a rate of change of the response measured, see Ref ( 1 ) . 2 1.4.1 For direct trend analysis, values are recorded directly from absorption spectra and reported in units of absorbance per 0.1 mm pathlength. 1.4.2 For differential trend analysis, values are recorded from the differential spectra (spectrum obtained by subtraction of the absorption spectrum of the reference oil from that of the in-service oil) and reported in units of 100*absorbance per 0.1 mm pathlength (or equivalently absorbance units per centimetre). 1.4.3 In either case, maintenance action limits should be determined through statistical analysis, history of the same or similar equipment, round robin tests, or other methods in conjunction with the correlation of sulfate by-product changes to equipment performance. Note 1: It is not the intent of this test method to establish or recommend normal, cautionary, warning, or alert limits for any machinery. Such limits should be established in conjunction with advice and guidance from the machinery manufacturer and maintenance group. 1.5 This test method is for petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants and is not applicable for ester based oils, including polyol esters or phosphate esters. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6.1 Exception— The unit for wave numbers is cm -1 . 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. ====== Significance And Use ====== 5.1 An increase in sulfate material can be an indicator of oil degradation caused by oxidation of sulfur in the oil and sulfur in fuel. It can also indicate the breakdown or oxidation of some key additives in the oil such as antiwear and extreme pressure additives as well as blow-by concerns. As oxidized sulfur from blow-by enters the lubricant, it will consume the overbase additive to generate sulfate by-products. Monitoring of sulfate by-products is therefore an important parameter in determining overall machinery health and in determining additive depletion and should be considered in conjunction with data from other tests such as atomic emission (AE) and atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy for wear metal analysis (Test Method D5185 ), physical property tests (Test Methods D445 and D2896 ), base number tests (Test Methods D974 and D4739 ), and other FT-IR oil analysis methods for nitration (Test Method D7624 ), oxidation (Test Method D7414 ), and additive depletion (Test Method D7412 ), which also assess elements of the oil’s condition, see Refs ( 1- 6 ) .

研制信息

起草单位

起 草 人

归口单位
D02.96.03

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